Toggle Touch Switch Using Two Inverter Gates

We  can make a simple touch switch using only two inverter gates, two resistors, and two capacitors. The schematic diagram of the circuit is shown in the figure below. At power up, the output (of U1A) will be high, and the inverting output will be low because U1A gate will be triggered to ground level by C2. After triggered, the low level of U1A input is maintained by U1B output via R2.



If we touch the pad at this condition, where the output is high, then the U1A input will go high because we “short” the voltage of C1 to the input pin, and the low level previously caused by low level of U1B output voltage connected via R2 can’t be maintained because our skin resistance is much lower than 10M.

After U1A input goes high then U1A output will go low, and now U1B will go high to maintain high voltage level of U1A via R2, so we can release our finger without loosing the last state. Touching the pad again after we release our previous touching will toggle the output as the condition is reversed.

After we touch the pad, we have to release before 1 second (R2C2 time constant) elapsed. If we touch the pad longer than R2C2 time constant then  the output will oscillate (about 1 Hz).


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Relay Toggle Switch Circuit Diagram

Half of RL1 and RL2 manipulate the switching and the other is connected to an application. Relays are 200 ohms above ground and at one point are referenced to positive that turns them off.

Description:

RL1 (which is off) applies plus voltage from its armature and latches RL2 “on”. The application terminals are set to [A]. The condition changes when S1 is activated, voltage is applied to RL2 latching RL1 “on” releasing S1 turns RL2 “off”. RL2’s armature is then directed to R1. Terminals are set to [B].

When S1 is pressed again, the relays negative side are referenced to positive, RL1 turns “off” (there’s no current flow). RL2 turns “on” when S1 is released, terminals are set to [A]. There is slight lag between relays depending on how long S1 is held.

Relay Toggle Switch Circuit Diagram

Note: 

If different relays are used, adjustment of R1’s value may be required. For example, OEG relays (12vdc, 270 ohm coil) need R1 at 60 - 70 ohms. The prime motivation for this design was to avoid using toggle switches for my audio control panel. Another plus, it can be controlled from a remote transmitted pulse.Link
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Step-Up Booster Powers Eight White LEDs

Small white LEDs are capable of delivering ample white light without the fragility problems and costs associated with fluorescent backlights. They do pose a problem however in that their forward voltage can be as high as 4 V, precluding them being from powered directly from a single Li-Ion cell. Applications requiring more white LEDs or higher efficiency can use an LT1615 boost converter to drive a series connected array of LEDs. The high efficiency circuit (about 80%) shown here can provide a constant-current drive for up to eight LEDs. Driving eight white LEDs in series requires at least 29 V at the output and this is possible thanks to the internal 36-V, 350-mA switch in the LT1615.

The constant-current design of the circuit guarantees a steady current through all LEDs, regardless of the forward voltage differences between them. Although this circuit was designed to operate from a single Li-Ion battery (2.5V to 4.5V), the LT1615 is also capable of operating from inputs as low as 1 V with relevant output power reductions. The Motorola MBR0520 surface mount Schottky diode (0.5 A 20 V) is a good choice for D1 if the output voltage does not exceed 20 V. In this application however, it is better to use a diode that can withstand higher voltages like the MBR0540 (0.5 A, 40 V). Schottky diodes, with their low forward voltage drop and fast switching speed, are the best match.

Many different manufacturers make equivalent parts, but make sure that the component is rated to handle at least 0.35 A. Inductor L1, a 4.7-µH choke, is available from Murata, Sumida, Coilcraft, etc. In order to maintain the constant off-time (0.4 ms) control scheme of the LT1615, the on-chip power switch is turned off only after the 350-mA (or 100-mA for the LT1615-1) current limit is reached. There is a 100-ns delay between the time when the current limit is reached and when the switch actually turns off. During this delay, the inductor current exceeds the current limit by a small amount. This current overshoot can be beneficial as it helps increase the amount of available output current for smaller inductor values.

Step-Up Booster Powers Eight White LEDs


This will be the peak current passed by the inductor (and the diode) during normal operation. Although it is internally current-limited to 350 mA, the power switch of the LT1615 can handle larger currents without problems, but the overall efficiency will suffer. Best results will be o btained when IPEAK is kept well below 700 mA for the LT1615.The LT1615 uses a constant off-time control scheme to provide high efficiencies over a wide range of output current. The LT1615 also contains circuitry to provide protection during start-up and under short-circuit conditions.

When the FB pin voltage is at less than approximately 600 mV, the switch off-time is increased to 1.5 ms and the current limit is reduced to around 250 mA (i.e., 70% of its normal value). This reduces the average inductor current and helps minimize the power dissipation in the LT1615 power switch and in the external inductor L1 and diode D1. The output current is determined by Vref/R1, in this case, 1.23V/68 = 18 mA). Further information on the LT1615 may be found in the device datasheets which may be downloaded from www.linear-tech.com/pdf/16151fa.pdf



Author: D. Prabakaran

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USB Power Booster

As you probably know, the USB 2.0 ports can deliver up to 500 mA that means about 2.5W. But sometimes you might need more power to connect an external HDD or other peripherals and the USB ports just cannot deliver enough current. In this case you can buy USB hubs that have an external power adapter required to boost the power or you can build a simple or complex circuit that can do the same thing.  We are providing a very simple design involves the use of the 7805 voltage regulator that can deliver 5V and 1A.

USB Power Booster Circuit Diagram

The USB serial bus can be configured for connecting several peripheral devices to a single PC. It is more complex than RS232, but faster and simpler for PC expansion. Since a PC can supply only a limited power to the external devices connected through its USB port, when too many devices are connected simultaneously, there is a possibility of power shortage. Therefore an external power source has to be added to power the external devices. In USB, two different types of connectors are used: type A and type B. The circuit presented here is an addon unit, designed to add more power to a USB supply line (type-A).

When power signal from the PC (+5V) is received through socket A, LED1 glows, opto- diac IC1 conducts and TRIAC1 is triggered, resulting in availability of mains supply from the primary of transformer X1. Now transformer X1 delivers 12V at its secondary, which is rectified by a bridge rectifier comprising diodes D1 through D4 and filtered by capacitor C2. Regulator 7805 is used to stabilize the rectified DC. Capacitor C3 at the output of the regulator bypasses the ripples present in the rectified DC output. LED1 indicates the status of the USB power booster circuit. Assemble the circuit on a general purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Bring out the +5V, ground and data points in the type-A socket. Connect the data cables as assigned in the circuit and the USB power booster is ready t o function.
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Circuit Board Checker

This little circuit indicates the basic integrity of a printed board, detecting 0V, positive supply voltage from less than 3V to 30V and floating parts. If the probe is floating, as it would be in a broken track, then both LEDs barely light up, since there is no current to drive the transistors, but if the probe touches 0V or a positive voltage one or other lights. A digital signal should light them in proportion to the mark-space ratio whereas the output of a circuit oscillating at a frequency rate below about 20Hz will cause the LEDs to flicker alternatively. The LEDs will illuminate always at a constant intensity, no matter the voltage supply used, because they are fed by a very simple FET constant-current generator (Q1).

Circuit diagram:

Circuit Board Checker Circuit Diagram

Circuit Board Checker Circuit Diagram



Parts:

R1 = 22K
R2 = 22K
D1 = Red LED
D2 = Green LED
Q1 = BF245
Q2 = BC547
Q3 = BC557

Notes:
  • The Black clip must be connected to the negative ground of the board under test.
  • The Red clip should be connected to a positive voltage source (not exceeding 30V) available on the same board.
  • Metal probe is suitable for this circuit.
  • Two Miniature Crocodile Clips (Red and Black) are also necessary.
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Infra-red Remote Control Tester

As I was developing my IR Extender Circuit, I needed to find a way of measuring the relative intensities of different Infra red light sources. This circuit is the result of my research. I have used a photodiode, SFH2030 as an infra red sensor. A MOSFET opamp, CA3140 is used in the differential mode to amplify the pulses of current from the photodiode. LED1 is an ordinary coloured led which will light when IR radiation is being received.

The output of the opamp, pin 6 may be connected to a multimeter set to read DC volts. Infra red remote control strengths can be compared by the meter reading, the higher the reading, the stronger the infra red light. I aimed different remote control at the sensor from about 1 meter away when comparing results. For every microamp of current through the photodiode, about 1 volt is produced at the output. A 741 or LF351 will not work in this circuit. Although I have used a 12 volt power supply, a 9 volt battery will also work here.

Circuit diagram:Infra-red Remote Control Tester Circuit Diagram
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An Expandable Multi-Zone Modular Burglar Alarm

The Basic Alarm Circuit has an automatic Exit/Entry Zone - an Instant Alarm Zone that will accept both normally-closed and normally-open triggering devices - and an "Always On" 24-hour Personal Attack/Tamper Zone. By using the Expansion Modules - you can add as many extra alarm zones as you require.

Schematic Diagram

Expandable Multi-Zone Modular Burglar Alarm

The Alarm is armed and disarmed by SW1. Before you move the switch to the "set" position - all the green LEDs should be lighting. You then have up to about a minute to leave the building. As you do so - the Buzzer will sound. It should stop sounding when you close the door behind you. This indicates that the Exit/Entry loop has been successfully restored within the time allowed. 


When you re-enter the building - you have up to about a minute to move SW1 to the "off" position. If SW1 is not switched off in time - the relay will energize - and the main bell will ring. It will continue ringing for up to about 40 minutes. But it can be turned off at any time by SW1. 

The "Instant" zone has no Entry Delay. The moment one of its normally-open switches is closed - the main bell will ring. Similarly - the moment one of its normally-closed switches is opened - the main bell will ring. If you don't want to use normally-open switches - leave out R8, C8 and Q2 - and fit a link between Led 3 and C7.
The 24 Hour Personal Attack and Tamper protection is provided by the SCR/Thyristor. If one of the switches in the normally-closed loop is opened - current through R11 will trigger the SCR - and the main bell will ring. In this case the bell has no time limit. To reset the PA/Tamper zone - first restore the normally-closed loop - then press SW2 momentarily. This will interrupt the current and reset the SCR.

Two-Zone Expansion Module


Expandable Multi-Zone Modular Burglar Alarm

The basic circuit will be satisfactory in many situations. However, if you have a large building to protect - it's much easier to find a fault - when the system is divided into zones - and the control panel can "remember" which zone has caused the activation. 

The expansion modules are designed to do this. Although they will work with the existing instant zone - they are intended to replace it. When a zone is triggered - its red LED will light and remain lit - to indicate that the zone has been activated. 

The idea is that - once you've noted the zone in question - you then press the reset button and turn off the LED. The reset button simply turns off the LED. It doesn't reset the zone. The zone resets automatically when the trigger circuit is restored. If you're using more than one expansion module - they can all share a single reset button.

Expandable Multi-Zone Modular Burglar Alarm

Inertia-Sensor Module

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